The new Food Import Vulnerability Index (FIVI) facilitates a rapid assessment of the risk to national food security of international food price shocks for 182 countries. Commodity-level FIVI scores indicate the vulnerability of a country to higher world prices for each staple food, while a country’s FIVI measures the vulnerability of the country to higher world food prices in general. Both the commodity-level FIVI and the national FIVI are based on the following three components:
- Share of caloric food intake, calculated as the share of staple crops in total food-energy consumption measured in calorie intake.
- Food import dependence, which is the share of net imports of each staple food in total domestic food consumption of the commodity.
- Prevalence of food insecurity, defined as the share of the population that faces moderate or severe food insecurity according to the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)
The commodity-level Food Import Vulnerability Index (FIVI) is calculated as the geometric mean of the three components listed above for each staple food and each country. The commodity-level FIVI is calculated for the 15 most important staple foods: wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, millet, cassava, yams, potatoes, sweet potatoes, plantains, beans, groundnuts, soybeans, sugar, and vegetable oils. ...
Please note that if a country is a net exporter of the commodity, the food import dependence is considered zero for the purpose of calculating the FIVI, resulting in a vulnerability index of zero for that commodity.
The country FIVI combines the commodity-level FIVIs for the 15 staple foods into one national index. More specifically, it is calculated as the geometric mean of the share of staple calories that are imported and the share of the population that is moderately or severely food insecure. The former is calculated as the weighted average of import dependence of the 15 staple foods, where the weights are the contribution of the commodity to caloric intake in the country. More information on the data sources and methods can be found in the Methods section.
The rationale behind using a multiplicative index is to ensure that the FIVI = 0 if there is a) zero caloric intake from the food commodity, b) the commodity is not imported, or c) none of the population is food insecure. For the FIVI score to be 100, the commodity would need to account for all of the caloric intake, all domestic supply of the commodity would need to come from imports, and the entire population would need to experience moderate or severe food insecurity. These are the extremes. In practice, the national FIVI ranges between 1 and 84, with the highest value found for Yemen.
In addition to major staple crops like maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum, the Food Import Vulnerability Index (FIVI) also incorporates metrics on lesser-traded consumer products that nevertheless contribute significantly to caloric intake in vulnerable countries. Specifically, cassava, plantains, yams, and millet have been included in the index calculations. These commodities account for at least 15% of caloric intake in 10 out of the 26 countries where the Prevalence of Undernourishment (PoU) is equal to or greater than 20%, and where moderate food insecurity impacts at least 59% of the population. In scenarios of external shocks affecting food security, these lesser-traded staples serve as important substitutes and should be integrated into policy considerations.
A dashboard with world maps, table and methodology can be found for each indicator by clicking on the tabs below.
1. Share of caloric intakes
2. Food import dependence
3. Prevalence of food insecurity
Food Import Vulnerability Index (FIVI)
The previous version
The previous tool effectively served to identify early on exposure to the shocks to global food and fertilizer markets caused by the war in Ukraine that started in February 2022.
Please explore the previous version of the Vulnerability to Global Food Price Shocks V.1: Wheat and Fertilizer Import Dependence tool by clicking the link below