Viet Nam

Vietnam has experienced successful economic growth in recent years, transforming from one of the poorest countries in the world into a lower middle-income country by 2010. Vietnam’s poverty rate fell from 58 percent in 1993 to 14.5 percent in 2008 (World Bank 2012), and the country has reached five of the 10 original Millennium Development Goals. Vietnam aims to continue its growth and reach middle-income status through the Socio-Economic Development Strategy (SEDS) 2011-2020. This strategy focuses on structural reforms, environmental sustainability, social equity, and emerging issues of macroeconomic stability. It emphasizes three "breakthrough areas": (i) promoting human resources/skills development , (ii) improving market institutions, and (iii) developing infrastructure. SEDS’ overall goal is to lay the foundations for a modern, industrialized society by 2020.

Vietnam is one of the biggest rice exporters in the world. The agricultural sector accounts for over 22 percent of the country’s GDP, 30 percent of the country’s exports, and 52 percent of the country’s employment (IFAD 2012). Agricultural growth was accelerated in recent decades through a combination of improved land use, irrigation, technology adoption, and the use of incentives to encourage investment. Specifically, price liberalization and land titling policies created dramatic shifts in agricultural growth and productivity.

Despite the country’s growth, Vietnam’s rural populations continue to face challenges in overcoming poverty. Many rural farmers are landless or have access only to small plots of low-quality land, and opportunities for off-farm employment continue to be scarce. Rural villages, particularly in the country’s upland and coastal areas, face frequent natural disasters and are vulnerable to negative seasonal weather patterns. Most poor people live in the north-central and north-east regions, in the Mekong Delta and central coastal regions, which are home to seven out of 10 of Vietnam’s poor. Members of the country’s 53 ethnic minority groups face particular hardships; these groups account for only 13 percent of Vietnam’s population but 30 percent of the country’s poor (IFAD 2012).

Agricultural Production
Agricultural Production2011201220132014
Rice Production
FAO 2014
42,398,344 MT43,737,598 MT44,040,457 MT44,974,206 MT
Maize Production
FAO 2012
4,835,717 MT4,973,482 MT5,190,895 MT5,202,511 MT
Soybean Production
FAO 2013
266,538 MT173,672 MT168,296 MT156,549 MT
Agricultural Exports
Agricultural Exports2010201120122013
Rice Exports
FAO 2013
6,892,959 MT7,112,000 MT8,010,925 MT3,939,076 MT
Wheat Exports
FAO 2012
MT MT500.00 MT500.00 MT
Maize Exports
FAO 2013
102.00 MT762.00 MT7,858 MT3,471 MT
Soybean Exports
FAO 2012
25,000 MT20,000 MT15,000 MT16,400 MT
Agricultural Imports
Agricultural Imports2010201120122013
Rice Imports
FAO 2013
983.00 MT2,409 MT27,600 MT6,251 MT
Wheat Imports
FAO 2012
2,220,548 MT2,421,217 MT2,423,616 MT1,915,393 MT
Maize Imports
FAO 2010
1,659,176 MT877,847 MT1,615,503 MT2,626,473 MT
Soybean Imports
FAO 2013
227,697 MT909,042 MT1,292,949 MT1,308,535 MT