Uganda has seen significant economic progress over the past two decades. GDP growth has increased from 6.5 percent per year in the 1990s to over 7 percent per year in the 2000s (World Bank). However, global economic shocks, high inflation, and other domestic factors have slowed this growth since 2009; GDP is expected to grow by only 4.3 percent in 2001-12 and to not exceed 5 percent in 2012-13 (World Bank). With per capita income of US$490 in 2010, Uganda remains a poor country.

Uganda has surpassed the Millennium Development Goal of halving its poverty rate by 2015, with the proportion of people living in poverty falling from 56 percent in 1992 to 24.5 percent in 2010 (World Bank). Despite this progress, the absolute number of poor people has increased due to high population growth, and the incidence of poverty in rural areas remains high at 30 percent (IFAD).

Eighty-seven percent of Ugandans live in rural areas, including hundreds of thousands of subsistence farmers (IFAD). Lack of access to inputs and infrastructure such as roads, as well as weak market linkages, prevent many farmers from benefiting from the country’s steady economic growth. Highly variable rainfall and soil fertility also pose challenges for agricultural productivity. While some parts of Uganda have two annual agricultural production seasons, other regions have only one season, increasing the impacts of negative weather events and low yields (WFP).

Agricultural Production
Agricultural Production2011201220132014
Rice Production
FAO 2014
233,000 MT212,000 MT214,000 MT237,000 MT
Wheat Production
FAO 2012
23,000 MT20,000 MT20,000 MT22,000 MT
Maize Production
FAO 2012
2,551,000 MT2,734,000 MT2,748,000 MT2,763,000 MT
Soybean Production
FAO 2013
213,300 MT185,000 MT23,200 MT23,400 MT
Agricultural Exports
Agricultural Exports2010201120122013
Rice Exports
FAO 2013
39,919 MT38,087 MT71,203 MT70,659 MT
Wheat Exports
FAO 2012
10,857 MT5,534 MT3,138 MT2,465 MT
Maize Exports
FAO 2013
127,314 MT54,978 MT177,952 MT103,950 MT
Soybean Exports
FAO 2012
1,410 MT1,579 MT3,165 MT2,074 MT
Agricultural Imports
Agricultural Imports2010201120122013
Rice Imports
FAO 2013
77,202 MT91,972 MT134,004 MT115,615 MT
Wheat Imports
FAO 2012
371,304 MT409,400 MT536,199 MT434,920 MT
Maize Imports
FAO 2010
1,457 MT17,243 MT16,100 MT5,033 MT
Soybean Imports
FAO 2013
254.00 MT138.00 MT324.00 MT133.00 MT