Since its civil war ended in 1992, Mozambique has experienced impressive economic growth. The country’s GDP has grown by more than 6.5 percent per year since 2007 (WFP 2012); despite recent global economic crises, Mozambique’s economic growth rose an impressive 7.5 percent in 2012 (World Bank 2012). Inflation reached a record low in 2012 at 1.2 percent (World Bank 2012).

In spite of this strong growth, however, Mozambique has not seen concomitant poverty reduction. It was ranked 184th of 187 on the 2011 UNDP Human Development Index and 66th out of 79 on the 2012 Global Hunger Index. An estimated 54 percent of the population lives in poverty; in rural areas, this number rises to 80 percent (IFAD 2012). The majority of the rural population lives on less than US$1 per day and lacks access to basic health, education, and sanitation services.

Small-scale agriculture is the main livelihood for most rural households and accounts for a majority of the nation’s agricultural production. Mozambique’s central and northern provinces have higher agricultural potential, more fertile soils, and more abundant rainfall than other parts of the country; these regions generally produce agricultural surpluses. The southern parts of the country are drier, with poor soils and recurring natural disasters such as floods and drought. Throughout the country, agricultural productivity is hampered by a lack of technology and services, dependence on traditional farming methods, and the use of low-yield seed varieties. Road networks are also typically in very poor condition in rural areas, limiting rural farmers’ access to markets and services.

Food insecurity in the country is widespread, with up to 25 percent of the population suffering from food insecurity at some point each year (WFP 2012). Chronic malnutrition in children under five remains alarmingly high at 44 percent (WFP 2012).

Agricultural Production
Agricultural Production2011201220132014
Rice Production
FAO 2014
271,402 MT102,000 MT142,000 MT155,742 MT
Wheat Production
FAO 2012
20,350 MT17,653 MT19,800 MT20,710 MT
Maize Production
FAO 2012
2,178,842 MT1,177,390 MT1,207,000 MT1,357,220 MT
Agricultural Exports
Agricultural Exports2010201120122013
Rice Exports
FAO 2013
76.00 MT76.00 MT1.00 MT1.00 MT
Maize Exports
FAO 2013
16,132 MT8,309 MT7,030 MT31,424 MT
Agricultural Imports
Agricultural Imports2010201120122013
Rice Imports
FAO 2013
303,638 MT348,870 MT465,882 MT526,975 MT
Wheat Imports
FAO 2012
551,379 MT378,353 MT547,580 MT766,934 MT
Maize Imports
FAO 2010
75,826 MT138,255 MT114,060 MT119,383 MT
Soybean Imports
FAO 2013
239.00 MT2,129 MT3,279 MT801.00 MT