China

Sustaining food security has always been one of the most important goals for governments at all levels in China. Since the second half of 2006, prices of agricultural commodities on the international and domestic markets kept soaring, which had negative effect on some households, especially the low-income households in China. Food prices registered relatively slow increase in 2005 (by 2.9 percent) and 2006 (by 2.3 percent), before suddenly shooting up to an annual jump of 12.3 percent in 2007. Meanwhile, rural areas reported even bigger food price rise (11.7 percent in cities and 13.6 percent in countryside). The price of pork and poultry and their products rose by approximately 32 percent and that of eggs by 22 percent. Prices for cereals are set by the government and saw a steady, stable increase of 21 percent between 2006 and 2009, after controlling for inflation.

In response to the crisis, China increased agricultural investments by 27 percent in 2007, 38 percent in 2008, and another 20 percent this year. No other big country, with the exception of India, has raised agricultural budget to this extent (The Financial Times Limited 2009). In 2008, China increased export duties on major crops, such as wheat, barley, and rice. The government also increased minimum support prices for different varieties of rice. Other agricultural input subsidies, such as on prices of fertilizers, have also been introduced (FAO GIEWS 2009).

Overall, China’s policy response to the crisis has been praised globally. It has given an opportunity to the country to pay more attention to food security issues. Overall, China considers itself mostly self sufficient and food secure in the production of rice, wheat, and corn. (The Financial Times Limited 2009).

Agricultural Production
Agricultural Production2011201220132014
Rice Production
FAO 2014
202,667,169 MT205,936,129 MT205,201,696 MT208,239,610 MT
Wheat Production
FAO 2012
117,414,034 MT121,030,059 MT121,930,527 MT126,215,211 MT
Maize Production
FAO 2012
192,904,232 MT205,719,284 MT218,621,905 MT215,812,100 MT
Soybean Production
FAO 2013
14,485,105 MT13,011,059 MT11,951,379 MT12,155,173 MT
Agricultural Exports
Agricultural Exports2010201120122013
Rice Exports
FAO 2013
610,041 MT501,073 MT280,453 MT466,374 MT
Wheat Exports
FAO 2012
72.00 MT39,808 MT29.00 MT2,563 MT
Maize Exports
FAO 2013
127,420 MT136,123 MT257,414 MT77,714 MT
Soybean Exports
FAO 2012
175,315 MT219,090 MT330,782 MT221,074 MT
Agricultural Imports
Agricultural Imports2010201120122013
Rice Imports
FAO 2013
875,060 MT1,059,294 MT2,801,203 MT2,718,094 MT
Wheat Imports
FAO 2012
2,361,148 MT2,612,288 MT5,057,542 MT6,830,683 MT
Maize Imports
FAO 2010
6,612,374 MT5,930,095 MT9,587,451 MT7,340,767 MT
Soybean Imports
FAO 2013
57,379,915 MT54,834,369 MT60,765,498 MT65,554,825 MT